A Review: Pollinator Services and Its Economic Evaluation

Navaraj Upadhyaya, Kalyani Bhandari


Pollinators are a crucial part of our ecosystem which aids the life of almost all living organisms present in this universe, and their contributions are justifiable according to Paretian efficient conditions. Though the services are an inseparable part of our life, property rights issues have made it difficult to evaluate the real worth of their services by Coase guidelines, the possible externalities they put to this universe, and the actual impact that free raiders have caused. This paper is based on techniques to incorporate those hidden services in economic assessment and policy formulation. For the economic evaluation of their services, we can quantify their values based on people's willingness to pay for the service, which aids in estimating the market value of producer and consumer's surplus, and the cost of the alternate means to achieve the same services, through production factor method, etc. To identify the sustainability of these ecosystem services, the regulation of pesticide use has to be integrated with these services. Farmers should focus not only on monoculture, but also on intensive farming, chemicals, making the least use of GMOs, and following Permaculture techniques in living and cultivation.

Full Text:



Eweje, G., Environmental costs and responsibilities resulting from oil exploitation in developing countries: The case of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Journal of Business Ethics, 2006. 69(1): p. 27-56.

Hall, C., et al., The impact of population growth and climate change on food security in Africa: looking ahead to 2050. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 2017. 15(2): p. 124-135.

Román, B., et al., Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Genome, 2002. 45(6): p. 1057-1063.

Pica‐Ciamarra, U., et al., Livestock in the Household Economy: Cross‐Country Evidence from Microeconomic Data. Development policy review, 2015. 33(1): p. 61-81.

Porter, M.E., Technology and competitive advantage. Journal of business strategy, 1985. 5(3): p. 60-78.

Porter, M.E., Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy. Economic development quarterly, 2000. 14(1): p. 15-34.

Velten, S., et al., What is sustainable agriculture? A systematic review. Sustainability, 2015. 7(6): p. 7833-7865.

Giannini, T., et al., Crop pollinators in Brazil: a review of reported interactions. Apidologie, 2015. 46(2): p. 209-223.

Fleming, T.H. and N. Muchhala, Nectar‐feeding bird and bat niches in two worlds: pantropical comparisons of vertebrate pollination systems. Journal of Biogeography, 2008. 35(5): p. 764-780.

Regan, E.C., et al., Global trends in the status of bird and mammal pollinators. Conservation Letters, 2015. 8(6): p. 397-403.

Roubik, D.W., Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics. Vol. 118. 1995: Food & Agriculture Org.

Park, J. and R. Seaton, Integrative research and sustainable agriculture. Agricultural Systems, 1996. 50(1): p. 81-100.

Giannini, T.C., et al., Improving species distribution models using biotic interactions: a case study of parasites, pollinators and plants. Ecography, 2013. 36(6): p. 649-656.

Genersch, E., Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping. Applied microbiology biotechnology, 2010. 87(1): p. 87-97.

Baldock, K.C., Opportunities and threats for pollinator conservation in global towns and cities. Current opinion in insect science, 2020. 38: p. 63-71.

LeBuhn, G., et al., Monitoring pollinators around the world, in Pollination services to agriculture. 2016, Routledge. p. 21-34.

Paudel, B.R., et al., Coevolutionary elaboration of pollination‐related traits in an alpine ginger (Roscoea purpurea) and a tabanid fly in the Nepalese Himalayas. New Phytologist, 2016. 211(4): p. 1402-1411.

Medema, S.G. and R.O. Zerbe Jr, The coase theorem. 1995: CRESP, Center for Research on Economic and Social Policy, University of ….

Bertrand, E., What do cattle and bees tell us about the Coase theorem? European journal of law economics, 2011. 31(1): p. 39-62.

Boehm, C., redefining The human free-rider Problem. Darwin's bridge: Uniting the humanities sciences, 2016: p. 11.

Kevan, P.G., E.A. Clark, and V.G. Thomas, Insect pollinators and sustainable agriculture. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 1990. 5(1): p. 13-22.

Kremen, C., et al., Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land‐use change. Ecology letters, 2007. 10(4): p. 299-314.

Dar, S., M.d.C. Arizmendi, and A. Valiente-Banuet, Diurnal and nocturnal pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico. Annals of Botany, 2006. 97(3): p. 423-427.

Ollerton, J., R. Winfree, and S. Tarrant, How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos, 2011. 120(3): p. 321-326.

Kearns, C.A., North American dipteran pollinators: assessing their value and conservation status. Conservation Ecology, 2001. 5(1).

Aizen, M.A. and L.D. Harder, The global stock of domesticated honey bees is growing slower than agricultural demand for pollination. Current biology, 2009. 19(11): p. 915-918.

Garibaldi, L.A., et al., Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. science, 2013. 339(6127): p. 1608-1611.

Melathopoulos, A.P., G.C. Cutler, and P. Tyedmers, Where is the value in valuing pollination ecosystem services to agriculture? Ecological Economics, 2015. 109: p. 59-70.

Shivanna, K., Management of pollination services to enhance crop productivity, in Plant biology and biotechnology. 2015, Springer. p. 697-711.

Biesmeijer, J.C., et al., Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands. Science, 2006. 313(5785): p. 351-354.

Potts, S.G., et al., Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in ecology & evolution, 2010. 25(6): p. 345-353.

Lebuhn, G., et al., Detecting insect pollinator declines on regional and global scales. Conservation Biology, 2013. 27(1): p. 113-120.

Cronk, Q. and I. Ojeda, Bird-pollinated flowers in an evolutionary and molecular context. Journal of experimental botany, 2008. 59(4): p. 715-727.

Nicolson, S. and P. Fleming, Nectar as food for birds: the physiological consequences of drinking dilute sugar solutions. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2003. 238(1-4): p. 139-153.

Porto, R.G., et al., Pollination ecosystem services: A comprehensive review of economic values, research funding and policy actions. Food Security, 2020. 12: p. 1425-1442.

Venkatachalam, L., The contingent valuation method: a review. Environmental impact assessment review, 2004. 24(1): p. 89-124.

Adeyemi, A., et al., The market price method and economic valuation of biodiversity in Bauchi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment, 2012. 3(3): p. 11-24.

Targetti, S., et al., Assessing the costs of measuring biodiversity: methodological and empirical issues. Food Economics, 2012. 9(1-2): p. 2-9.

Hueting, R., et al., The concept of environmental function and its valuation. Ecological Economics, 1998. 25(1): p. 31-36.

Hein, L., The economic value of the pollination service, a review across scales. The Open Ecology Journal, 2009. 2(1).

Gallai, N., et al., Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological economics, 2009. 68(3): p. 810-821.

Egan, P.A., et al., Delivering integrated pest and pollinator management (IPPM). Trends in Plant Science, 2020. 25(6): p. 577-589.

Weyant, J., et al., Integrated assessment of climate change: an overview and comparison of approaches and results. Climate change, 1995. 3.

Gilden, R.C., K. Huffling, and B. Sattler, Pesticides and health risks. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic Neonatal Nursing, 2010. 39(1): p. 103-110.

Krebs, J. and S. Bach, Permaculture—Scientific evidence of principles for the agroecological design of farming systems. Sustainability, 2018. 10(9): p. 3218.

Ferguson, R.S. and S.T. Lovell, Permaculture for agroecology: design, movement, practice, and worldview. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2014. 34(2): p. 251-274.

Fawzy, S., et al., Strategies for mitigation of climate change: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 2020. 18(6): p. 2069-2094.

Fujimori, S., et al., Inclusive climate change mitigation and food security policy under 1.5 C climate goal. Environmental Research Letters, 2018. 13(7): p. 074033.

Wratten, S.D., et al., Pollinator habitat enhancement: benefits to other ecosystem services. Agriculture, Ecosystems Environment, 2012. 159: p. 112-122.

Arpaia, S., G. Smagghe, and J.B. Sweet, Biosafety of bee pollinators in genetically modified agro‐ecosystems: Current approach and further development in the EU. Pest Management Science, 2021. 77(6): p. 2659-2666.

H. Castro, C. Siopa, V. Casais, M. Castro, J. Loureiro, H. Gaspar, S. Castro. 2021. Pollination as a key management tool in crop production: Kiwifruit orchards as a study case. Scientia Horticulturae. Vol 290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2021.110533.

Sumia Urainab. 2022. Future Role of Bio-microorganism Pesticide In Pakistan. International Journal of Food, Agriculture, and Natural Resources. Vol 3 (1):45-49. https://doi.org/10.46676/ij-fanres.v3i1.87

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46676/ij-fanres.v3i2.85


  • There are currently no refbacks.

E-ISSN : 2722-4066

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.