The Extraction and Partial Characterization of Lunatin from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.)

Ahmad Nafi', Maria Belgis, Aisyah Fridannisa


Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) contains a lectin called lunatin which is an antinutrient with antioxidant, antifungal, and antiproliferative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different processing of Lima bean seeds, namely crushed dry seeds, Lima bean flour, and Modified Legume Flour (MOLEF). In addition, it delved into the differences resulting from different extraction temperatures (27ºC, 40ºC, and 50ºC) on the lunatin extract obtained. The results show that the total protein in dry seeds, flour and MOLEF Lima beans are 23.18%, 24.20% and 17.12%, respectively. The molecular weight of lunatin detected is 30.25 kDa; The highest antioxidant activity, marked at 83.58% , is obtained by lunatin extract from samples of crushed dried Lima beans, with an extraction temperature of 50ºC, while the lowest activity, 45.97%, is indicated by lunatin extract from MOLEF samples of Lima beans, with extraction temperature of 40ºC. Temperature variations in general do not affect the protein bands detectable. Likewise, the antioxidant activity also does not show antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger.

Full Text:



Adeparusi, E. O., 2001, “Effect of processing on the nutrients and anti-nutrients of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) flour”, Nahrung/Food, Vol. 45 (2): 94-96.

Antony, H. and T. S. Chandra, 1998, “Antinutrient reduction and enhancement in protein, starch, and mineral availability in fermented flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana)”, Agric. Food Chem, Vol. 46: 2578-2582.

Diniyah, N., W. S. Windarti, and Maryanto, 2013, “Pengembangan teknologi pangan berbasis koro-koroan sebagai pangan alternatif pensubstitusi kedelai”, Prosiding Semnas Pengembangan Sumber Daya Lokal untuk Mendorong Ketahanan Pangan dan Ekonomi, UPN Veteran, East Java.

Diniyah, N., W. S. Windarti, Maryanto, and S. Riady, 2015, “Sifat fungsional tepung Lima Bean hitam, merah dan putih (Phaseolus lunatus L.) dengan perlakuan lama perendaman, Jurnal Hasil Penelitian Industri, Vol. 28(2): 70-77.

e Lacerda, R. R., E. S. do Nascimento, J. T. J. G. de Lacerda, L. S. Pinto, C. Rizzi, M. M. Bezerra, I. R. Pinto, S. M. P. Filho, V. P. T. Pinto, G. C. Filho, C. A. A. Gadelha, and T. S. Gadelha, 2017, “Lectin from seeds of a Brazilian lima bean variety (Phaseolus lunatus L. var. Cascavel) presents antioxidant, antitumour and gastroprotective activities”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol. 95: 1072-1081.

Giyarto, I. N. Hafidoh, and W. S. Windarti, 2016, “Sifat fungsional tepung bumbu hasil formulasi dengan penggunaan tepung Lima Bean”, Prosiding Seminar Nasional APTA, pp. 227-230, Jember, 26-27 October 2016.

Gould, N. R. and S. L. Scheinberg, 1970, “Isolation and partial characterization of two anti-A hemagglutinins from P. lunatus”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 137: 1-11.

Huismann, J., 1991,“Antinutritional factors in poultry feeds and their management”, 8th European Symposium Poultry Nutrition: 42-61, Venezia-Mestre, Italia, 14-17 October 1991.

King, T. P., A. Pusztai, and E. M. Clarke, 1982,“Kidney bean lectin-induced lesions in rat small intestine: 3”, Ultrastructural studies, J. Comp. Path., Vol. 92: 357-372.

Kurniana, L. M., 2015, “Karakteristikfisik, kimia, dan fungsional tepung koro pedang (Canavalia ensiformis L.)termodifikasi dengan fermentasi menggunakan Lactobacillus plantarum”, Skripsi, Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Jember.

Laemmli, U. K., 1970,“Clevage of strutural protein during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4”, Nature (London), Vol. 227: 680-685.

Marndi, R., 2012,“Isolation and characterization of concanavalin A from the seeds of Canavalia ensiformis”, Thesis, Department of Life Science, National Institute Of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India.

Mensor, L. L., F. S. Menesez, G. G. Leitão, A. S. Reis, T. C. dos Santos, C. S. Coube, and S. G. Leitão, 2001, “Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method”, Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 15: 127-130.

Nafi’, A., N. F. Isnaini, and D. A. Putri, 2016, “Pembuatan nugget jamur merang (Volvariella volvaceae) dengan variasi rasio MOLEF (Modified Legume Flour) Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), Prosiding Seminar Nasional APTA, pp. 231-237, Jember, 26-27 October 2016.

Otsuki, A., Y. Ino, and T. Fujii, 1983, “Simultaneous measurements and determinations of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, and organic carbon and nitrogen contents in biological samples bu coupling of a small quadrupole mass spectrofotometer and modified carbon-nitrogen elemental analyzer”, International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Physics, Vol. 48: 343-346.

Sharon, N. and H. Lis, 1972,“Lectins: Cell-agglutinating and sugar-specific proteins”, Science, Vol. 177: 949-59.

Suhardi, 1989,“Kimia dan Teknologi Protein”, Pusat Antar Universitas Pangan dan Gizi, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta.

Umaeroh, N. U., 2019,“Karakteristik Texturized Vegetable Protein dari Molef (Modified Legume Flour) Lima Bean dan Isolat Protein Kedelai”, Undergraduate Thesis,Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Jember, Jember.

Wu, J., J. Wang, S. Wang, and P. Rao, 2016,“Lunatin, a novel lectin with antifungal and antiproliferative bioactivities from Phaseolus lunatus L. Billb”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol. 89(7): 17-24.

Okekunle, M. O., K. O. Adebowale, B. I. Olu-Owolabi, dan A. Lamprecht. 2020. Physicochemical, morphological and thermal properties of oxidized starches from lima bean (phaseolus lunatus). Scientific African. 8.

Mani-López, Emma., Palou, Enrique., López-Malo, Aurelio. 2021. Legume proteins, peptides, water extracts, and crude protein extracts as antifungals for food applications. Trends in Food Science & Technology. (112). 16-24.

Del Rio, M., L. de la Canal, M. Pinedo, dan M. Regente. 2018. Internalization of a sunflower mannose-binding lectin into phytopathogenic fungal cells induces cytotoxicity. Journal of Plant Physiology. 221: 22–31.

Wei, Xiaoxiao., Liu, Yi., Luo, Yadan., Shen, Zheng., Wang, Shuangfei., Li, Mingfu., and Zhang, Liming. 2021. Effect of organosolv extraction on the structure and antioxidant activity of eucalyptus kraft lignin. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 187: 462-470. doi: 10.1016/J.IJBIOMAC.2021.07.082.

Franco-Miranda, H., L. Chel-Guerrero, S. Gallegos-Tintoré, A. Castellanos-Ruelas, dan D. Betancur-Ancona. 2017. Physicochemical, rheological, bioactive and consumer acceptance analyses of concha-type mexican sweet bread containing lima bean or cowpea hydrolysates. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 80:250–256.

Azkiyah, L., Y. Yamamoto, S. Ogita, dan T. Yoshino. 2020. Preparation and optimization formula of whey protein-pectin complex as nanocapsules for lemon (citrus limon) juice. International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources. 1(1):1–6.

Yahya, F. dan H. T. Ting. 2020. Effect of different ratios of chicken meat to fresh osyter mushroom (pleurotus sajor-caju) on the physicochemical properties and sensory acceptability of sausages. International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources. 1(1):7–14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

E-ISSN : 2722-4066

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.