Effect of Compound (NPSB) Fertilizer Type on Yield and Nutrient use Efficiency of Maize (Zea mays L.) at Beko Village in Yeki District, Southwest Ethiopia

Mulisa Abdi Wedajo, Selamyihun Kidanu, Alemaheyu Reggasa


Farmer in different parts of Ethiopia uses a similar type of fertilizer and amounts that are below the crop requirements, even the low soil fertility which limits crop production in general. To solve the over-blanket fertilizer application over different agroecology Ethiopian Soil Information System (EthioSIS) mapped the soil fertility and recommended types of fertilizer for a specific location. A NPSB type of fertilizer where recommended for Beko village, but the rate of this fertilizer type was not studied so far. So, this field experiment was conducted to determine the rate of NPSB fertilizer type and nutrient use efficiency of maize during the 2018 cropping season. A total of eight treatments with four replications were laid out in a factorial randomized complete block design. Treatments were control (zero fertilizer), previously blanket recommended nitrogen and phosphorus (92 N+ 69 P2O5) kg/ha, 150 NPSB +100 urea +100 K2O kg/ha, 200 NPSB +100 urea + 100 K2O kg/ha, 250 NPSB +100 urea +100 K2O kg/ha, 150 NPSB +150 urea +100 K2O kg/ha, 200 NPSB +150 urea +100 K2O kg/ha and 250 NPSB +150 urea +100 K2O kg/ha. Data were statistically analyzed by statistical analysis system (SAS) and mean treatment differences were compared by least significant differences (LSD). An analysis of variance indicated that application of NPSB fertilizer was not influenced plant height, ear height, ear length, cob length, number of ears per plant, thousand seed weight, harvest index, and shelling percentage as compared to the previously blanket recommended Nitrogen and Phosphorus (NP) fertilizer but grain and above-ground dry biomass were influenced except the application of 150 NPSB +100 urea. Application of 250 NPSB + 100 urea gave the highest maize grain yield (8828.2 kg/ha). Application of NPSB fertilizer improved the nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency of maize compared to the previously blanket recommended NP. The highest N use efficiency (64.75 kg/ha) was obtained from the application of 200 NPSB +100 urea, while the lowest N use efficiency (23.89 kg/ha) was from the previously blanket recommended NP fertilizer. As economic analysis indicated that the application of 150 NPSB +100 urea is recommended for the study area.

Full Text:



CSA. (2017). Agricultural Sample Survey 2016/2017 Vol-I. Report on area and production of major crops. Statistical Bulletin 269-278. Addis, Ababa Ethiopia.

IFPRI. (2010). Maize value chain potential in Ethiopia; Constraints and opportunities for enhancing the system, IFPRI: Washington, DC.

FAO. (2015). The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture (SOLAW) Managing Systems at Risk: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy; Earth scan: London, UK, 2011.

Tolessa Debele, Gemechu Gedeno and Melakeselam Leul. (1994). Response of maize to split application of nitrogen fertilizer at Bako. In6 Annual Conference of the Crop Science Society of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, (Ethiopia). 3-4 May 1994.

Abebayehu, A., Elias, E., and Diels, J. (2011). Comparative analysis of soil nutrient balance at farm level: a case study in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. International Journal of Soil Science, 6(4): pp.259-266.

Zingore, S. (2011). Maize productivity and response to fertilizer use as affected by soil fertility variability, manure application, and cropping system, Better crops, 95(1): pp.4-6.

Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA). (2016). Soil fertility status and fertilizer recommendation atlas for SNNPRS, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA), A.A, Ethiopia.

Selamyihun, K., Mamo, T and Stroosnijder, L. (2005). Biomass production of Eucalyptus boundary plantations and their effect on crop productivity on Ethiopian highland Vertisols. Agroforestry Systems, 63(3): pp.281-290.

Nigussie, H., Poesen, J., Paridaens, K., Nyssen, J., Deckers, S., Mitiku, H. and Govers, G. (2007). Nutrient export and associated costs from micro-dam catchments in Tigray, pp.27-28.

IFDC. (2015). Assessment of Fertilizer Consumption and Use by Crop in Ethiopia; https://africafertilizer.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/FUBC-Ethiopia-Final-Report- 2016.pdf.

Arif, M., Ali, S., Khan, A., Jan, T., Akbar, M. (2006). Influence of farmyard manure application on various wheat cultivars. Sarhad J. Agric., 22: 27-29.

Vanlauwe, B., Descheemaeker, K., Giller, K.E., Huising, J., Merckx, R., Nziguheba, G., Wendt, J. and Zingore, S. (2015). Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa. Unravelling local adaptation. Soil science, 1(1): pp.491-508.

Lelago A.B, Mamo, T. A Haile, W.W and Shiferaw, H.D. (2016). Soil micronutrients status assessment, mapping and spatial distribution of Damboya, Kedida Gamela and Kecha Bira Districts,Kambata Tambaro zone, southern Ethiopia. African Journal of agricultural research,Vol. 11(44):pp. 4504-4516.

EthioSIS. (2013). Status of soil resources in Ethiopia and priorities for sustainable management, GSP for eastern and southern Africa Mar 25-27, 2013 Nairobi, Kenya.

EthioSIS. (2014). Soil fertility status and fertilizer recommendation atlas for Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, July 2014.

EthioSIS. (2015). Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency. http://www.ata.gov. ET/highlighted deliverables/Ethiopian soil information system EthioSIS.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2006). Working group WRB (2007). World reference base for soil resources.

Day, P.R. (1965). Particle fractionation and particle‐size analysis. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Properties, Including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling, 9, pp.545-567.

Van Reeuwijk L.P. (1992). Procedures for Soil Analyses.3rd ed. Int. Soil Reference and Information Centre Wageningen (ISRIC), the Netherlands.

Bremner, J.M. (1965). Total Nitrogen, methods of soil analysis, part 2: chemical and microbiological properties (methods of soilanb), pp.1149-1178.

Olsen, S.R. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate (No. 939). US Department of Agriculture.

Morgan, M.F. (1941). Chemical diagnosis by the universal soil testing system; conn. agr. exp. sta. (New Haven) bull. 450.

Mehlich, A. (1984). Mehlich 3 soil test extract ant, a modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 15: 1409-1416.

Chapman HD. (1965). Cation exchange capacity methods of soil analysis, part 2, chemical and microbiological properties, (methods of soil analysis), pp.891-901.

Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil science, 37(1): pp.29-38.

Fageria, N.K., and V. C B. (2005a). Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Adv. Agron., 88:97–185.

CIMMYT. (1998). Economics Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, from agronomic data to farmer recommendations: an economics training manual (No. 27).

Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical procedures for agricultural research. John wiley & sons.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (1977). Guidelines for soil profile description. 2nd ed; Soil Dev. and Conserv. Serv., Land and Water Dev. FAO, Rome

Landon J. R. (1991). Booker Tropical soil manual, a handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. Longman, Booker. 474p.

Tekalign, M and Haque. I. (1991). Phosphorus status of some Ethiopian soils: III, Evaluation of soil test methods for available phosphorus. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 68: pp.51-56.

Horneck, D.A., Sullivan, D.M., Owen, J.S and Hart, J.M. (2011). Soil test interpretation guide.

Hazelton, P. and Murphy, B. (2007). Interpreting soil test results: what do all the numbers mean 2nd (ed). Department of natural resources. CSIRO publishing.

Muhammad.F.J, Waqas.L, Haseeb.A, Muhammad.D.A and Wazir.R. (2018). Phenology, growth, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L) hybrids to different levels of mineral potassium under semiarid climate. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources Research Article, Volume 9 Issue 5.

Dagne, Chi. (2016). Blended fertilizers effects on Maize yield and yield components of Western Oromia, Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 5(5): pp.151-162.

Shiferaw Boke, Mulugeta Habte, Atinafu Asefa and Abay Ayalew. (2018). Macro and Micronutrients for optimizing maize production at Hawassa Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) Vol.8.

Asefa, F, Mohammed, M and Debela, A. (2014). Effects of different rates of NPK and blended fertilizers on nutrient uptake and use efficiency of Teff [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter] in Dedessa District, Southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, Vol.4, No.25.

Ayalew, A and Habte, M. (2017). Use of balanced nutrients for better production of Teff (Eragrostis tef (zucc.) at Bensa in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Resources Development and Management, Vol.32.

Mulugeta.H and Abay.A. (2017). Blended fertilizers as sources of balanced nutrients for growth and yield of Wheat at Hulla District in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.7, No.9.

Abebaw T and Hirpa L. (2018). Effects of Fertilizer Rate (Blended) and Sowing Methods on Yield of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its Economic Profitability in Western Ethiopia. International Journal of Comprehensive Research in Biological Sciences, Volume -5: Issue -7; Pages: 1-14ISSN: 2393-8560.

Ali.J, Bakht.J, Shafi.M, Khan, S and Sha, W.A. (2002). Effect of various levels of N and P on yield and yield components of Maize. Pakistan Journal of Agronomy, 1(1): pp.12-14.

Mengel, K., Hutsch, B. and Kane, Y. (2006). Nitrogen fertilizer application rates on cereal crops according to available mineral and organic soil nitrogen. European Journal of Agronomy, 24(4): pp.343-348.

Dobermann, A.R. (2005). Nitrogen Use Efficiency State of the Art: Agronomy and horticulture faculty publications. Paper 316. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/agronomy fac pub/316.

Getachew, A. and Rezene, F. (2006). Response of Faba bean to phosphate fertilizer and weed control on nitisols of Ethiopian highlands. Italian Journal of Agronomy, pp.281-290.

Degefa, K., Biru, G., & Abebe, G. (2022). Factors Affecting Tomato Productivity in Western Oromia, Ethiopia: Evidence from Smallholder Farmers. International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3(2), 5–10.

Lyu, Y., Yang, X., Pan, H., Zhang, X., Cao, H., Ulgiati, S., Wu, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, G., & Xiao, Y. (2021). Impact of fertilization schemes with different ratios of urea to controlled release nitrogen fertilizer on environmental sustainability, nitrogen use efficiency and economic benefit of rice production: A study case from Southwest China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 293, 126198.

Sabiha-Javied, N., Siddque, N., Waheed, S., Tufail, M., Nasir, R., & Aslam, A. (2022). Uptake of heavy metal in wheat from application of different phosphorus fertilizers. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 115, 104958

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46676/ij-fanres.v4i2.130


E-ISSN : 2722-4066

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.